Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM)

Programmatic experience shows that an integrated strategy can be effective in achieving high treatment coverage and delivering high-quality care to sick children in the community.1

Photo of a man administering healthcare to a child on a woman's lap.
Photo credit: Fernando Fidelis/MCSP, Muecate District, Nampula Province, Mozambique

What is iCCM?

Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) is a strategy to train, support, and supply community health workers (CHW) to provide diagnostic, treatment, and referral services for three common, treatable, and curable childhood illnesses: malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea. Young children are especially vulnerable to these illnesses, and iCCM offers caregivers in these hard-to-reach communities a way to help children under five get the treatment they need before it is too late.2 iCCM has become one of the key global health strategies recognized by stakeholders across the health system. When well-designed and implemented, an iCCM program expands access to life saving interventions for vulnerable populations living in settings with poor access to health care.


Why iCCM?

Over the last decade or so, key global stakeholders working with country level partners and Ministries of Health in high burden countries have been successful in bringing in policy change, with the majority of the countries approving iCCM as a key strategy to deliver life-saving interventions to remote and inaccessible communities. However, implementation at scale shows mixed results, with very few countries able to cover a significant proportion of the iCCM target areas. Also, most countries still rely on donor support to fund their iCCM programs, which has resulted in limited implementation coverage. Many countries that have scaled up iCCM also struggle to maintain an acceptable level of service integration and quality. There is a huge unfinished agenda that includes, most importantly, weak global guidance and national governance, and weak integration and implementation quality. Addressing these issues will require continued global level coordination and support to help countries achieve their goal of quality implementation of iCCM at scale. To be effective, iCCM must be ministry-led, adequately resourced and managed, with long-term commitments of support from partners. National ownership of the iCCM strategy requires that countries plan and adequately budget for iCCM implementation, including domestic funding sources for health.

The set of resources presented below was collated by the Child Health Task Force subgroup for Institutionalizing iCCM and the U.S. President’s Malaria Initiative (PMI) Impact Malaria. They are meant to guide national and subnational policymakers in their journey towards institutionalization as well as provide information for implementers engaged in iCCM programs at the country and community levels.

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Policy, Program, and Operational Learnings Report of iCCM/CMAM Integration

Service Delivery and Referral Communication and Social Mobilization M&E and Health Information Systems

USAID-funded MOMENTUM Country and Global Leadership developed this report in September 2021 to share learnings and programmatic experiences of integrating community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) and integrated community case management (iCCM). The report presents key findings from a literature review of peer-reviewed articles, technical documents, program reports, consultative meeting proceedings, and global and national guidelines that focus on integrating these strategies.

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These resources are grouped using the components in the iCCM benchmark framework developed by USAID.³ For more iCCM resources, see this list in the Child Health Task Force Resource Library.

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Service Delivery and Referral Communication and Social Mobilization M&E and Health Information Systems

Review of published and grey literature designed to contribute to a growing evidence base on implementation of CCM interventions in humanitarian settings and documentation of lessons learned with the goal of improving delivery of essential services to the most vulnerable populations.

Service Delivery and Referral Communication and Social Mobilization M&E and Health Information Systems

This Save the Children guide is based on findings from a global literature review on iCCM program implementation in emergencies and on case studies from Yemen and Haiti. It provides emergency responders with basic information on iCCM, support for making key decisions to implement iCCM during a spike in humanitarian needs or throughout protracted crisis settings and choices for transition after the acute phase has ended.

Service Delivery and Referral Communication and Social Mobilization M&E and Health Information Systems

USAID-funded MOMENTUM Country and Global Leadership developed this report in September 2021 to share learnings and programmatic experiences of integrating community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) and integrated community case management (iCCM). The report presents key findings from a literature review of peer-reviewed articles, technical documents, program reports, consultative meeting proceedings, and global and national guidelines that focus on integrating these strategies.

Service Delivery and Referral

This paper presents the protocol used in a study to determine and compare treatment failure rates of enhanced iCCM compared with standard iCCM in children aged 2-59 months of age with chest indrawing pneumonia without general danger signs and/or hypoxaemia.

Service Delivery and Referral

This report was commissioned by the Child Health Task Force and developed by Save the Children Kenya in collaboration with the Ministry of Health in 2021. It provides an account of the status of the iCCM strategy in Kenya, the gaps in its delivery system, and the case for investment. The investment case was informed by desk reviews, key informant interviews, and case studies from Busia, Turkana, and Kisumu counties.

Costing and Financing

Presentation on PMI support for iCCM at the iCCM Technical Consultation, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 22-26, 2019.

Service Delivery and Referral

Presentation introducing the WHO/Unicef Planning Handbook: Caring for Newborns and Children in the Community, from the iCCM Technical Consultation held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 22-26, 2019.

Human Resources Service Delivery and Referral Supervision and Performance Quality Assurance

Presentation by Catherine Kane introducing the WHO Guideline on Health Policy and Support System to Optimize Community Health Worker Programs, from the iCCM Technical Consultation held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 22-26, 2019.

Service Delivery and Referral

Presentation by Asiya Odugleh-Kolev on the WHO Community Engagement Framework and experiences from Rwanda, during Session Four of the iCCM Technical Consultation, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 22-26, 2019.

Service Delivery and Referral

Presentation on lessons learned from the Rapid Access Expansion Programe, a scaled, multi-context iCCM implementation program, by Salim Sadruddin during Session Two of the iCCM Technical Consultation, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July 22-26, 2019.